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Emphasizing a pragmatic method of analysis and remedy, this quantity summarizes present details on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and worrying stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights contain vast dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative problems, and eyelid neoplasms. comprises up to date references and diverse new colour photographs.
Read or Download 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) PDF
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Extra resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
1 CHAPTER 1: Orbital Anatomy. 17 after passing through the ciliary ganglion without synapse. The long ciliary nerves pass by the ciliary ganglion and enter the sclera, where they extend anteriorly to supply the iris, cornea, and ciliary muscle. Motor innervation to the extraocular muscles has already been outlined. The muscles of facial expression, including the orbicularis oculi, procerus, corrugator superciliaris, and frontalis muscles, receive their motor supply via branches ofCN VII (the facial nerve) that penetrate the undersurface of each muscle.
Microphthalmia Microphthalmia is much more common than anophthalmia and is defined as the presence of a small eye. Eyes vary in size depending on the severity of the defect. Most infants with a unilateral small orbit and no visible eye actually have a microphthalmic globe. 35 36 . Orbit, Eyelids, and LacrimalSystem All microphthalmic children have hypoplastic orbits. Most microphthalmic eyes have no potential for vision, and treatment focuses on achieving a cosmetically acceptable appearance that is reasonably symmetric.
Although digital systems are more economical, they currently do not provide the same degree of resolution as conventional film techniques. CT and MR Angiography Because of the development of better hardware and software, precise CT and MR imaging of arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, and arteriovenous fistulas is now possible CHAPTER 2: Evaluation of Orbital Disorders. 33 without the expense and discomfort of intravascular catheterization and injection of contrast material, as well as the risks associated with these maneuvers.