By American Academy of Ophthalmology, John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the evaluate and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and stressful stipulations of the orbit and accent constructions. Covers key facets of orbital, eyelid and facial surgery.
Upon finishing touch of part 7, readers might be capable to:
Describe the traditional anatomy and serve as of orbital and periocular tissues
Choose acceptable exam options and protocols for diagnosing issues of the orbit, eyelids, and lacrimal system
Describe practical and beauty symptoms within the surgical administration of eyelid and periorbital stipulations
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System PDF
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System
Exophthalmos specifically means proptosis of the eye and is sometimes used to describe the bulging of the eye associated with TED. Exorbitism refers to an angle between the lateral orbital walls that is greater than 90°, which is usually associated with shallow orbital depth. This condition contrasts with hypertelorism, or telorbitism, which refers to a wider-than-normal separation between the medial orbital walls. Generally, exorbitism and hypertelorism refer to congenital abnormalities. Telecanthus refers to a wide intercanthal distance.
Exophthalmometry is a measurement of the anterior-posterior position of the globe, generally from the lateral orbital rim to the anterior corneal surface (Hertel exophthalmometry; Fig 2-1) . On average, the globes are more prominent in men than in women and more prominent in black patients than in white patients. An asymmetry of greater than 2 mm between an individual patient's eyes suggests proptosis or enophthalmos. Proptosis may best be appreciated clinically when the examiner looks up from below with the patient's head tilted back (the so-called worms-eye view; Fig 2-2).
II • CHAPTER 1: Orbital Anatomy • 17 . nasociliary branch enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure within the annulus of Zinn, entering the intraconal space and traveling anteriorly to innervate the eye via the ciliary branches. The short ciliary nerves penetrate the sclera after passing through the ciliary ganglion without synapse. The long ciliary nerves pass by the ciliary ganglion and enter the sclera, where they extend anteriorly to supply the iris, cornea, and ciliary muscle.