Download Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and by Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, PDF

By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund

This e-book investigates recommendations, merits, boundaries, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside a undeniable energy finances, whereas focusing on complete integration. eventually, the publication investigates probabilities for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS expertise.

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Additional resources for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)

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2 The frequency down-conversion function The clarification of the frequency down-conversion function starts with the clarification of the image problem. In order to simplify the analysis of the image problem it is assumed that the received RF signal consist of only a wanted sinusoidal signal with frequency ωw and an unwanted sinusoidal signal with frequency ωi . 7) Aw and Ai are half of the amplitudes of the wanted and unwanted signal, respectively. 10) 22 CHAPTER 2. FRONT-END ARCHITECTURE SELECTION The high frequency components that are located at the frequencies ωw + ωlo and ωi + ωlo have to be filtered out.

Many devices that work for different standards can be active at the same time creating very congestive radio environment with a high level of interference. The radio environment is not constant. It can happen that at a certain moment a lot of devices are active, while a moment later only a few are still working. Hence, the level of interference changes and design for the worst-case scenario is not optimal design. The most severe consequence of the scaling of CMOS technologies is the supply voltage reduction.

This effect is called LO leakage. It depends on capacitive and substrate coupling. Also, the antenna can pick up the signal radiated by the LO. These two effects are presented in Fig. 30. In both cases (LO leakage and LO radiation) an unwanted signal will be present at the RF port of the mixer. It is mixed with the LO signal producing DC 46 CHAPTER 2. 30 LO leakage and LO radiation component. DC-offsets can be time varying. The LO signal that reaches the antenna is radiated. ” Since a mobile terminal moves, the reflection is quite random and consequently time-varying DC-offsets occur.

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