By Th. Von Kármán
Read or Download Advances in Aeronautical Sciences. Proceedings of the Second International Congress in the Aeronautical Sciences, Zürich, 12–16 September 1960 PDF
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Extra info for Advances in Aeronautical Sciences. Proceedings of the Second International Congress in the Aeronautical Sciences, Zürich, 12–16 September 1960
Wmax is independent the chamber pressure, in fact the theoretical pressure ratio would anyway be infinite. It is well known that this limit cannot be reached practically, because of finite nozzle dimensions, wall friction, energy losses by incomplete combustion etc. With the introduction of nuclear heating and use of isentropic expansion of hydrogen very high exhaust velocities are possible. But the reactor temperatures have to be extremely high, at least by present standards (some 1600-2000° K or even more).
Becker(15). He neglected the change of viscosity, and heat conduction coefficients with temperature, and assumed a gas with Prandtl-number 3/4 to simplify the calculations. Figure 15 shows the transition in the shock. Entropy is first rising and afterwards there is a small reduction. M. Roy has shown that the entropy maximum corresponds to the abszissa where the velocity curve is steepest<16). The different terms of the energy equation are drawn separately. This equation can be transformed by introduction entropy into the simple form: 24 DANIEL AND FLORENCE GUGGENHEIM MEMORIAL LECTURE If we call (ρνν) · s = S an entropy flux, the left hand side means T · div S, the right hand side contains the entropy sources.
25. GIBBS, J. , 1875. The Collected Works. New York, 1928. 166. 26. , Heat-Capacity Lag in Gasdynamics. / . Chem. Phys. 14, (1946), 150. 27. , Transient Phenomena in Supersonic Flow—in L. RIDENOUR: Modem Physics for the Engineer. New York, 1954. 362. 28. , Ueber Widerstände, die durch gasdynamische Relaxation hervorgerufen werden. Zeitschrift für Flugwissenschaften 4, (1956), 14-17. 29. , Handbuch der Experimentalphysik, Vol. 4, part 1 Leipzig, 1931. 357-358. 30. LORENTZ, H. , Les théories statistiques en thermodynamique.