By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill
E-book via Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen
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Extra info for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth
We chose to present the substance use results before age 18, since early use of these substances likely conveys more information about risky behavior than does later use. In contrast, childbearing out of wedlock is likely to have consequences for both mothers and children even for those giving birth beyond the teen years, as the literature reviewed in the previous chapter indicates. But the racial differences and trends over time presented in this chapter are not sensitive to the age cutoffs used in either case.
3 fewer weeks in the year preceding the Round 8 interview. 6 fewer weeks. 05 level. 3 Household Structure and Young Adult Outcomes Chapter 2 documented gaps in employment and educational outcomes between white and minority young adults that have persisted or grown over the past few decades, with outcomes for young black men worsening in relative (or even absolute) terms. One potential explanation for the persistence of these gaps is the increasing likelihood that minority children grow up in single-parent families.
SOURCE: Authors’ tabulations from NLSY97. gaps in family income and the persistence of school segregation play some role (Card and Rothstein 2005), though they cannot fully explain the persistence of achievement gaps. Indeed, a racial gap in achievement is observed early (appearing before children start school), and having a young, single mother contributes to lower scores (Fryer and Levitt 2004). But whether differences in household structure, parental characteristics, and parenting behavior can account for much of the existing racial gap in achievement and its failure to close over time merits further study.