By V.A. Lefebvre
In this e-book moral structures are defined within the language of arithmetic. quite often arithmetic is believed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. simple utilized arithmetic bargains with reckoning and size, the place concrete amounts are gadgets of realization, akin to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with the aid of symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or a whole bunch corno hence, the 1st precept that shows the ability of arithmetic is abstraction. it truly is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. often, guy communicates by means of phrases. W ords serve communique to the level that they seek advice from issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. communique is winning to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases by means of the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded by way of the hearer. As is weH identified, the measure ofthis correspondence varies greatly in several contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language during which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally special. This precision is completed through abstraction. summary phrases are outlined via their family members to different phrases and via not anything else.
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Extra resources for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
The two outputs of the automaton are the outputs of the automata A and B. The third output is the output of the situation, which is its evaluation calculated under the condition that the outputs of A and B are known. The evaluation is made in accordance with the evaluation rules governing the interaction between good and evil in each ethical system. The frequency of appearance of 1 in the output of the situation we will call the ethical status of the situation. The statuses of individuals and of the A's input I L I a8 + b r A's output + ~ ~ bb+ä 1- I B's input B's output output of the situation Fig.
But doubts cannot appear, because the individuals do not have elements of the third tier, the correctness of which they may doubt. This being the case, let us agree that when we speak of the absence of doubts, we assume that in the structure there are elements the correctness ofwhich an individual does not doubt. Which individual has a higher ethical status: a doubting or non-doubting one? 5) sees the 'real' relationshi ps between himself and his partner as a . b; however, he sees himself seeing a + b.
In tbis book we will not use a categorical interpretation such as 'being sure'; we will consider that an individual supposes or assumes that his image is wrong. ' CDa CDb\ m ~)a + real B (from A's point of viewl Fig. 1. Structure of an individual who doubts the correctness of bis image of his partner. , ab out the correctness of B 3 == 6. Similarly let us consider an individual aoll . 2) Reasoning formally, we can say that A has a correct image ofhimself, but he sees himself as having an incorrect image of himself.